Hypertension
Physical Health

HOW IS HYPERTENSION A “SILENT KILLER”

healthie_folks 
HYPERTENSION

Hypertension often comes in a way that one may not see anything wrong, yet high blood pressure may be quietly inflicting damage to your health. Knowing your numbers is the best form of prevention. Myths and misunderstandings surround hypertension. You may receive several pieces of advice from well-meaning friends and relatives. With hypertension, you can feel well. This is why it’s dubbed “the silent killer,” because a heart attack or stroke can occur without warning.

WHAT IS HYPERTENSION?

High blood pressure is also known as hypertension. It can cause serious health problems and raise the risk of heart disease, stroke, and even death.

The force exerted by a person’s blood on the walls of their blood vessels is referred to as blood pressure. This pressure is determined by the resistance of the blood arteries and the amount of effort required by the heart.

Hypertension is influenced by both the volume of blood pumped by your heart and the resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The greater your blood pressure, the more blood your heart pumps and the smaller your arteries.

HOW DO YOU CALCULATE BLOOD PRESSURE?

Two numbers are used to calculate blood pressure:

The first number, systolic blood pressure, measures how much pressure is in your arteries when your heart beats. The second number, diastolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries between heartbeats.

If the systolic pressure is 120 and the diastolic pressure is 80, you might say “120 over 80” or write “120/80 mmHg.” A healthy blood pressure reading is less than 120/80 mmHg.The top number is known as the systolic, while the lower number is known as the diastolic. The ranges are as follows:

  • Less than 120 over 80 (120/80) is considered normal.
  • Elevated: 120-129/under 80
  • Stage 1 hypertension: 130-139/80-89
  • Stage 2 hypertension: 140/90 or above
  • Hypertension crisis: more than 180/greater than 120

WHAT CAUSES HYPERTENSION

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels. The heart pushes blood into blood arteries, which transport it throughout the body. High blood pressure, often known as hypertension, is harmful because it causes the heart to work harder to pump blood out to the body and leads to atherosclerosis, stroke, renal disease, and heart failure.

The etiology of hypertension is frequently unknown. It is frequently the outcome of an underlying ailment.

Primary or essential hypertension refers to high blood pressure that is not caused by another ailment or disease. Secondary hypertension occurs when an underlying ailment causes elevated blood pressure.

Primary hypertension can be caused by a variety of conditions, including:

  • being overweight
  • insulin sensitivity
  • excessive salt consumption heavy alcohol consumption
  • smoking and leading a sedentary lifestyle

High blood pressure often develops gradually. It can occur as a result of poor lifestyle choices.

Secondary hypertension occurs when a primary cause of high blood pressure can indeed be recognized. Kidney illness is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Malignancies or other defects that cause the adrenal glands to generate excessive quantities of hormones that raise blood pressure can also cause hypertension. Birth control pills, particularly those containing estrogen, and pregnancy, as well as drugs that constrict blood vessels, might raise blood pressure.

RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERTENSION

  • Tobacco use. Smoking or chewing tobacco not only momentarily raises your blood pressure, but the chemicals in tobacco can also damage the lining of your artery walls. This can induce artery narrowing and raise your risk of heart disease. Secondary smoking can also raise your chance of developing heart disease.
  • Your diet is deficient in potassium. Potassium aids in the equilibrium of sodium in your cells. A stable potassium balance is essential for optimum heart health. Sodium can build up in your blood if you don’t receive enough potassium in your food or if you lose too much potassium due to dehydration or other health issues.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking might harm your heart over time. More than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for males may raise blood pressure.
  • Stress. High amounts of stress might cause a brief rise in blood pressure. Stress-related behaviors such as eating more, smoking, or drinking alcohol can cause blood pressure to rise even higher.
  • Obesity or being overweight The more blood you require to deliver oxygen and nourishment to your tissues, the more weight you have. The pressure on your artery walls increases as the volume of blood flowing through your blood arteries grows.
  • Being physically inactive. People who are sedentary have greater heart rates. The faster your heart beats, the harder it has to work with each contraction, and the greater the stress on your arteries. Obesity is also increased by a lack of physical activity.

SYMPTOMS OF HYPERTENSION

Unless the condition is severe, high blood pressure has no symptoms. Regular checks are the best method to determine if your blood pressure is high. At home, you may also check your blood pressure. This is especially crucial if you have a close family with hypertension.

Severe High Blood Pressure Symptoms

If your blood pressure is exceptionally high, you should be aware of the following symptoms:

  • Vision issues
  • Chest ache
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Heartbeat irregularity
  • Urine with blood
  • A pounding sensation in your chest, neck, or ears
  • Dizziness
  • Nervousness
  • Sweating
  • Sleeping difficulties
  • Extensive headaches
  • Nosebleed

DIAGNOSIS FOR HYPERTENSION

Your doctor will examine you and ask you questions about your medical history. The doctor, nurse, or other medical assistants will wrap an inflatable arm cuff over your arm and use a pressure-measuring gauge to take your blood pressure.

To see if there is a difference, your blood pressure should be taken in both arms. It is critical to utilize the proper size arm cuff.

  • Laboratory tests: A urine test (urinalysis) and blood tests, including a cholesterol test, may be recommended by your doctor.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG):This short and painless test monitors the electrical activity of your heart.
  • Echocardiogram: Your doctor may conduct echocardiography to look for other indicators of heart disease based on your symptoms and test findings. Echocardiography creates pictures of the heart using sound waves.
  • Monitoring in the ER: This 24-hour blood pressure monitoring test determines whether you have high blood pressure. This test equipment checks your blood pressure at regular intervals over 24 hours, providing a more accurate picture of blood pressure variations throughout the day and night.

TREATMENT FOR HYPERTENSION

MEDICATION

A variety of drugs can be used to treat high blood pressure. These medications are known as antihypertensives. They are classified into several groups, each of which operates differently and has various side effects.

With so many alternatives available, it may take some time and patience to locate the ideal one for you. Your doctor and you will collaborate to develop the optimum treatment plan for you, which may involve one or more drugs.

Diuretics

Diuretics are among the most widely prescribed medications for high blood pressure. They aid the kidneys in excreting extra water and sodium, or salt. This decreases the amount of blood that must flow through your blood vessels, lowering your blood pressure.

Diuretics are classified into three types: thiazide, potassium-sparing, and loop diuretics. Thiazide diuretics have fewer negative effects than other diuretics. This is especially true when taken at the modest dosages commonly used to treat early high blood pressure.

Beta-blockers

Beta-blockers operate by preventing your body’s substances from stimulating your heart. This permits your heart to beat more slowly and with less effort. With each beat, your heart pumps less blood through your blood vessels, causing your blood pressure to fall.

These are some examples of these drugs:

  • acebutolol (Sectral)
  • atenolol (Tenormin)
  • betaxolol (Kerlone)
  • bisoprolol (Zebeta) (Zebeta)
  • bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (Ziac) (Ziac)
  • tartrate of metoprolol (Lopressor)
  • succinate of metoprolol (Toprol-XL)
  • nadolol (Corgard)
  • pindolol (Visken)
  • propranolol (Inderal)
  • sotol (Betapace)
  • Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)

ACE inhibitors prevent the body from producing angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict. These drugs reduce blood pressure by allowing constricted blood arteries to open and allow more blood to flow through. ACE inhibitors hinder the body’s enzyme from making angiotensin II, a chemical that constricts blood vessels. High blood pressure can result from this constriction, which causes the heart to work harder. Angiotensin II also causes the production of blood pressure-raising hormones. Adverse consequences

ACE inhibitors may cause the following side effects:

  • Coughing that is dry
  • Blood potassium levels have risen (hyperkalemia)
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness caused by a drop in blood pressure
  • Headaches
  • Taste deterioration

ACE inhibitors can occasionally induce swelling in certain tissues (angioedema). If there is swelling in the throat, it might be fatal.

Calcium channel inhibitors

All muscles require calcium to flow in and out of muscle cells to move. Calcium channel blockers work by preventing calcium from entering smooth muscle cells in the heart and blood vessels. This causes the heart to beat more slowly and the blood vessels to relax. Blood pressure falls as a result.

These are some examples of these drugs:,amlodipine (Norvasc, Lotrel),diltiazem (Cardizem CD, Cardizem SR, Dilacor XR, Tiazac),felodipine (Plendil),isradipine (DynaCirc, DynaCirc ,nicardipine (Cardene SR),nifedipine (Adalat CC, Procardia XL),nisoldipine (Sular)

Alpha-blockers

In some circumstances, your body produces hormones known as catecholamines. These hormones can attach to cell structures known as alpha-receptors. When this happens, your blood arteries constrict and your heart beats quicker and more forcefully. These acts raise your blood pressure.

Alpha-blockers inhibit catecholamine binding to alpha-receptors. As a consequence, blood may flow more freely through the blood arteries, and your heart beats correctly. This aids in the reduction of blood pressure.

POINT TO NOTE

The type of blood pressure medicine prescribed by your doctor may be determined by your other health issues. If you have coronary artery disease and excessive blood pressure, for example, your doctor may prescribe a beta-blocker. A beta-blocker can lower your blood pressure and lessen your overall risk of mortality if you have had a myocardial infarction related to CAD. Your doctor may prescribe an ACE inhibitor or an ARB if you have diabetes. That’s because these medications can help protect the kidneys from diabetes damage by reducing the blood pressure in your kidneys.

WAYS TO IMPROVE HYPERTENSION

Exercise

Exercise is one of the most effective ways to reduce high blood pressure. Regular exercise strengthens your heart and makes it more effective at pumping blood, and lowering artery pressure. Indeed, 150 minutes of moderate activity each week, such as walking, or 75 minutes of strenuous exercise, such as running, can help decrease blood pressure and enhance heart health. Furthermore, doing more activity than this lowers your blood pressure even more.

Reduce your sodium consumption.

Globally, people consume a lot of salt. This is largely attributable to processed and prepared meals. As a result, numerous public health initiatives are geared at reducing salt in the food business. Many studies have connected excessive salt consumption to high blood pressure and cardiovascular events, including stroke. However, newer evidence suggests that the link between salt and high blood pressure is less obvious. One cause for this might be hereditary variances in salt metabolism. A quarter of persons with normal blood pressure and half of those with high blood pressure appear to be salt sensitive.

If you already have high blood pressure, reducing your salt consumption may help.

Caffeine consumption should be reduced.

If you’ve ever had a cup of coffee before having your blood pressure tested, you’ll know that caffeine provides an immediate spike. However, there isn’t much evidence to show that taking caffeine daily can create a long-term rise. If you feel you are caffeine-sensitive, try reducing your intake to see if it reduces your blood pressure.

Try to quit smoking

One of the numerous reasons to stop smoking is because it is a major risk factor for heart disease.

Every cigarette puff produces a tiny, transitory elevation in blood pressure. Tobacco compounds have also been linked to blood vessel damage. Surprisingly, studies have failed to establish a definitive relationship between smoking and high blood pressure. Perhaps this is because smokers build a tolerance over time.

Nonetheless, because smoking and high blood pressure both increase the risk of heart disease, quitting smoking can help reduce that risk.

Manage stress

Stress is a major contributor to high blood pressure.

When you’re stressed out, your body is always in fight-or-flight mode. Physically, this translates to a higher heart rate and constricted blood vessels. When you are stressed, you are more prone to indulge in other habits, such as consuming alcohol or eating unhealthy foods that might raise your blood pressure.

Reduce your weight

Losing weight can improve heart health in persons who are overweight.

Losing weight might drastically reduce your blood pressure. The loss was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In comparison, a healthy value should be less than 120/80 mm Hg. When weight loss is combined with exercise, the benefit is magnified. Losing weight can help your blood vessels perform a better job of expanding and contracting, allowing the left ventricle of the heart to pump blood more efficiently.

CARE AND ADVICE

People believe It’s sufficient if your blood pressure is taken regularly by a doctor. This may be true for persons who do not have hypertension, but people who have persistently high blood pressure should monitor themselves at home. Your doctor should authorize your at-home monitoring equipment.

A blood pressure notebook that monitors variations over time is also a good idea. If your blood pressure continues to increase after medication, your doctor should be informed. Never discontinue your medicine without first visiting your doctor. Hypertension is a chronic illness that may require you to take medicine every day for the rest of your life. It is worthwhile to invest in your health.

Remember that lifestyle plays an important part in the treatment of high blood pressure. Blood pressure control by a healthy lifestyle may avoid, delay, or lessen the need for medication.

What does Healthierfolks want to say?

Now that we know in what ways hypertension can be a silent killer, each and everyone needs to maintain a healthy lifestyle and be very cautious with the numbers. This is for everyone, whether you are diagnosed with hypertension or not.

Recommended Posts

Leave A Comment

string(15) "sidebar_layouts" 1
error: Content is protected !!